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Reports of SPLISS partner nations

Most recent publication: Elite sport in Switzerland: State of play in 2019 

Between 2011 and 2019 a large number of sports policy measures were implemented in the Swiss elite sport system. These measures lead to international competitiveness, better perspectives for elite athletes and improved working conditions for trainers.

The Swiss Federal Institute of Sport Magglingen SFISM conducted the second consecutive study on the Elite Sport System in collaboration with Swiss Olympic (Swiss NOC). The report “Elite sport in Switzerland–Snapshot SPLISS-CH 2019 (Kempf et al., 2019)” offers a model-based presentation of the Swiss support system and casts a critical eye over it in relation to the Olympic medal target.

Based on the SPLISS model a mixed research method was applied. 1151 athletes, 542 trainers and 102 performance directors, heads of youth development and heads of education took part in the survey. A wide scaled literature research, document analysis and 87 qualitative interviews lead to an inventory with profound knowledge of the Swiss sport system. The project team also validated the results with relevant persons during a series of workshops throughout the project.

Switzerland is a very efficient sporting nation. Olympic elite sport is well supported and promoted in many areas. The authors described key leverage points to achieve a sustainable development of elite sport in Switzerland in six areas of action. These are:

  • Improving strategic management

  • Optimizing athletes' paths further

  • Increasing career opportunities for trainers

  • Long-term improvement of the support for multi-sport structures

  • Networking with leading organizations

  • Reinforcing the role of performance sport as a Swiss cultural asset

The Report "Elite sport in Switzerland -Snapshot SPLISS-CH 2019 (Kempf et al., 2019)" is published in German and French. The Management Summary is also published in English and Italian. The report and further information can be found on the website of the Federal Office of Sport FOSPO.

German: Leistungssport Schweiz (

French: Sport d’élite suisse (

Italian: Sport di prestazione in Svizzera (

The project was supported by the SPLISS consortium. Several meetings and workshops were conducted to improve the fit of the SPLISS-instruments to the particularities of Switzerland. The consortium provided an additional report comparing the scores between 2019 and 2011 We, the project team, thank Prof Dr Veerle de Bosscher and Jens de Rycke from VUB university for their support throughout the project.

The results were presented at a media conference where the Head of the Federal Department of Defence, Civil Protection and Sport, the President of Swiss Olympic and the Director of the Federal Office of Sport FOSPO were present. The media conference underlines the importance of this study for policy making in Switzerland in the years to come.

Media Conference German:


Different SPLISS partners have produced their own policy reports and numerous publications. A summary, of those that are known to us, is shown below.

  • Brazil: Ter Böhme, M.T. et al. – GEPAE, EEFE, LATECA (2014). International comparison of elite sport policies (spliss) – descriptive analysis of brazilian results. Universiade De Sao Paulo.

  • Canada: Legg, D. (2014). Sport Policies Leading to International Sporting Success – Blog for Canadian Sport for Life. 

  • Denmark: Storm, R.K., & Jørgensen, L.T. (2012), Elitesportsmiljøet i Danmark 2012: Analyse af det danske eliteidrætsmiljø baseret på undersøgelsen. ‘Sport Policy Factors Leading to International Sporting Success’ (SPLISS). Copenhagen: Danish Institute for Sports Studies. Storm, R.K., & Jørgensen, L.T. (2014), Sport Policy Factors Leading to International Sporting Success (SPLISS): Dansk eliteidræt i international sammenligning – foreløbige resultater. Copenhagen: Danish Institute for Sports Studies. Read report 

  • Estonia: Read report in Estonian: , Read summary in English: . 

  • Finland: Kärmeniemi, M., Mäkinen, J. & Lämsä, J. (2012).SPLISS –urheilujärjestelmät. Suomen kansallinen väliraportti (SPLISS – sport systems. The I national report of Finland). KIHUn julkaisusarja nro 39.

  • Flanders: De Bosscher, V., De Croock, S. (2012). Trends in het Vlaams topsportklimaat. Evaluatie volgens topsporters, trainers en topsportcoördinatoren: 2-meting (2003-2007-2011)[Trends in the elite sport climate in Flanders. Evaluation according to elite athletes, coaches and high performance directors]. Brussel: VUB. ISBN: 9789090272788. Read report 

  • Japan: Funahashi, H., Nagamatsu, J., Shirai, K., Yamashita, S., Nakamura, H., Yamada, E., Waku, T., De Bosscher, V., Mano, Y. (2013). International Journal of Sport and Health Science Success Drivers in the Japanese Elite Sport System: An Examination Based on Evaluations of the Elite Sport Climate by Elite Athletes. Asian Sports Management Review, 7, 1999; Japan Sport Council & Waseda University (2012). Elite sport kankyo chousa: chousa houkokusho [Elite sport climate survey: Analysis report]. 

  • The Netherlands: Van Bottenburg et al. (2012). Bloed, zweet en tranen en een moment van glorie [blood, sweat, tears and a moment of glory]. Niewegein. Arko Sports Media; Van Bottenburg, et al. (2009). Op jacht naar goud. Het topsportklimaat in Nederland, 1998-2008. Nieuwegein: ARKO Sports Media; Van Bottenburg, et al. (2003). Ontwikkelingen in het topsportklimaat in Nederland (1998-2002), Nieuwegein: Arko Sports Media.

  • Northern Ireland: Donelly, P., Shibli , S. (2014). Sport Policy Factors Leading To International Sporting Success: An audit of the elite sport development system in Northern Ireland. 

  • Portugal: Carvalho, Pedro e Canelas, Rui (2013) RELATÓRIO NACIONAL DO SPLISS – versão em língua portuguesa. Ed. impressa única. 

  • Spain: Vilanova, A; Inglés, E.; Martin, A & Gonzàlez, S. (2011). Memoria Científico-Tècnica: Factores de la política deportiva española que conducen al éxito deportivo a nivel internacional (Report: Sports Policy Factors Leading to International Spanish Sporting Success”). Consejo Superior de Deportes. Expedient 095/UPB10/11. Registro: 11329. Read report 

  • Switzerland : Kempf, H., Weber, A.C., Zurmühle, C., Bosshard, B., Mrkonjic, M., Weber, A., Pillet, F. & Sutter, S. (2021). Elite sport in Switzerland: Snapshot SPLISS-CH 2019. Magglingen: Federal Office of Sport. Read report  - Kempf, H., Weber, A. Ch., Renaud, A., & Stopper, M. (2014). Elite sport in Switzerland. Snapshot SPLISS-CH 2011. Magglingen: Federal Office of Sport.